REVOLUTIONARY TECHNOLOGICAL INNOVATION FOR INCREASING PERFORMANCE OF ELECTROSTATIC PRECIPITATORS AND REDUCING POLLUTION
- Major technological advance in the elimination of particulates matter (PM)
- Drastic reduction of Hazardous Air Pollutants (HAPs) and gas-phase organic carbon (based compounds emitted into the atmosphere by the combustion processes of fossil fuels)
- Application in different industries: coal-fired power plants, steel mills, cement plants, electric furnaces, etc
- Enables expansion of industrial operations and production capacity by limiting environmental impacts
Strategic asset in the world’s political and economic stage
- USA: announced gradual phase-out of coal-fired power plants
- In the US, the SS technology would allow the reactivation of coal-fired power plants, while meeting environmental regulations
- China: dilemma of continuing to grow and improve air quality in a coal-fired economy
- Pollution costs China $ 1 billion/day
- Coal represents 58% of the Chinese energy matrix
- In 2018, due to environmental impacts, China is reducing steel production by 30 million tons and coal production by 150 million tons
SS technology with 125kV relay: captures 60% of today’s unfiltered pollution
SS technology with 158kV relay: the output of PM will be reduced by virtually 100%
SS TECHNOLOGY COMBINED WITH DSI AND ACI
An additional effect of SS technology is to maximize the effects of using dry technologies for the reduction of Hazardous Air Pollutants such as:
- “Dry Sorbent Injection” DSI which consists of blowing Trona, Sodium Bicarbonate and Lime in the duct to provide the reaction with the acid gases and capture the resulting particles of CaSO3 and the others in the Electrostatic Precipitator avoiding the emissions of the following hazardous air pollutants (“HAPs”): Hydrogen Chloride; Hydrogen Fluoride; Hydrogen Cyanide; Collateral Pollutants; Sulfur Dioxide.
- Activated Carbon Injection “ACI“, where Powdered Activated Carbon (similar to charcoal) is blown into the flue gas after combustion and pollutants are absorbed by carbon and removed by PM controls, controlling the emissions of Mercury, Arsenic, Chromium, Selenium, Dioxins and another gas-phase organic carbon based compounds.
SS technology makes it possible to use submicron particles of activated carbon and DSI by increasing exponentially the captured particles derived from chemical reactions and thereby drastically reducing atmospheric pollution.
DEVELOPMENT OF THE SS TECHNOLOGY
First experimental equipment
- used to prove inventor’s PhD thesis about Charged Particles Movements in Complex Electrical Fields
- showed a behavior in the ESPs: LOCALIZED ACCUMULATIONS
- enabled the individual electrode switch off and inspired the inventor to present the idea of LOCAL CONTROL
The first step was try to explain the reasons for this behavior in ESPs
Alternated effect of the electrical field in consecutive emissions electrodes in ESPs and the UNAVOIDABLE formation of localized accumulation of collected material.
It is easier collect coarser particles and they form thicker layers very quickly.
What are the consequences of the UNAVOIDABLE localized accumulation?
In order to further confirm and study the localized accumulations, TCS projected, developed, and constructed the Diagnosis Channel.
The construction of the Diagnosis Channel permitted the installation of Local Insulators in each emission electrode at the same time that each position in all the 18 electrodes was provided with HV Relay with remote actuation.
Also the floor of the corridor is removable, what enables the local collections as shown in the examples below.
Examples of Collection Distribution along a corridor: Increasing the Voltage implies that the Main Localized Accumulation shift to the beginning of the corridor. That fact, observed several times in Diagnosis Channel led to the New Patent Requirement. It’s also obvious that at the end of the corridor almost no material is collected. The SS technology aims a better use of that region, as it will be demonstrated.
SS technology allows the ESP to be continuously operated at a higher voltage level than conventional ESPs
Main Advantages of SS technology
– Lower RAPPING Frequency (lower rate of reentry and wear);
– Higher average LAYER THICKNESS and Higher COMPACTATION, due to the longer time under the action of the electric field (greater weight for gravitational action x aerodynamic drag, also with lower rate of re-entry by diminished layer break down during rapping);
– Exclusive SPONGE EFFECT of entrapment of fines in the collected mass. This Effect was observed in Channel Diagnostics;
– Better mass distribution at the end of the corridor, for RE–ENTRY REDUCTION (associated with power on / down mix rapping, that is a procedure exclusive in ESPs with SS technology);
– Extremely significant increase in the CAPTURE OF PM 0.1 to PM 2.5 (gain of 60% in retention estimated for Sinter Plants);
– Feasibility of CONTROLLING transverse effects arising from poor flow distribution by programming times of activation of Relays;
– Adjustment action FLEXIBILITY due to changes in relay activation times in campaign changes and / or seasonality.
FEASIBILITY || SS TECHNOLOGY IN THE CAPTURE OF FINE PARTICULATE MATTER
- Electric Fields of 6 KV / cm (ESP with 30 cm of distance plate wire and voltage of 180 KV)
- Experiments capture particles from 1 to 50 nm = 0.001 to 0.05μm.
- Electric Fields of 5.3 KV / cm (Precipitator with 30 cm of distance plate wire and voltage of 160 KV)
- Experiments highly efficient in the ionic bombardment of particles in the range 30 to 200 nm = 0.03 to 0.2μm.
ESPs with an Electric Field of 3KV / cm (90 KV in the space of 30 cm plate wire) will be very effective on Particles 0.1 to 2.5μm. Such Applied Electric Field is possible with SS technology installed in ESPs with HF Transformers and relays LP 100 KV, EXCLUSIVELY DEVELOPED BY GIGAVAC IN CONTRACT WITH TCS. Of course new relays of 160 KV would turn possible stronger Electric Fields and consequently action on smaller particles, and that is the next step on research and development by Gigavac/TCS.
RESULTS || CAPTURE OF FINES IN ESPs WITH SS TECHNOLOGY AND MODERN POWER SOURCES
Cumulative mass distribution of dust emitted from sinter plants
Importance of capturing PM 2,5 in Sinter Industry
For particles with diameters above 0.1 μm, an 3.2 KV/cm Electric Field (95 KV in the space of 30 cm plate wire, possible with Selective Switching, High Frequency Transformers available on the market and the 100 KV Relays Developed by Gigavac under EXCLUSIVE contract with TCS ) will have the capture effectiveness shown in the figure, representing a 60% reduction in mass emission.
Since 2004, TCS is working with Vale Company at the city of Vitoria, State of Espirito Santo, Brazil, in order to achieve the First Upgrade in one of the Vale’s Electrostatic Precipitators at Tubarão Power Plant. After exhaustive technical discussions, TCS succeed in starting the SS technology implantation in PE04 Plant 8 as shown below.
Vale Company and Arcelor Mittal Tubarão are geographically very near each other. Solutions for post treatment of emissions like the Bag Filter implanted in AMT under strong social pressure, in a movement named “Vitoria, Capital City of Black Powder” requires industrial ground area that are not available at Vale Plants 1 to 7. Vale has need of a solution that can improve the performance of ESPs without post treatment.
In September 2017, Vale firmed an official agreement with local legal and environmental authorities to install ant test the SS technology in one of its ESPs in 24 months. This installation is already in course in ESP04 of Plant 8.
ESP 04 Plant 8 || Vale Company
- Since beginning of ESPs technology, one of the main ideas of improvement was MORE FIELDS AND MORE CHAMBERS, JUST TO ACHIEVE MORE CONTROL. That worked up to a point (leading to the need of post treatment systems) because it was not realized the importance of “Sponge Effect” and the undesirable consequences of permitting small and light particles to be “alone” in the last field
- SS technology is the ultimate form of MORE CONTROL
- The upgrading of already installed ESPs is interesting, necessary and effective but the main goal shall be the development and construction of ESP-SS/ACI/DSI